MBBS - Full Form, Eligibility, Entrance Exams

Discover all the information you need about MBBS including the list of the top Medical Colleges in India

What is MBBS?

MBBS stands for “Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery” and is a 5.5-year undergraduate degree awarded to students pursuing medical and surgical studies. Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery covers extensive studies in health sciences and medication and trains students to apply the knowledge and working of anatomical systems towards maintaining human health, researching, diagnosing, curing, and preventing diseases and injuries in living beings.


Specialisations in MBBS

Specialisations in Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery include the following-

  • Anaesthesiology
    • Anaesthesia | Intensive Care Medicine | Critical Emergency medicine
  • Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery
  • Biotechnology
    • Medical Biotechnology | Medical Biotechnology Hons
  • Cardiology
    • Perfusion Technology | Cardio-Pulmonary Perfusion Technology | Cardiac and Cardiovascular Technology
  • Clinical Research
  • Dental Medicine
    • Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics | Dental Education | Dental Surgery | Diploma Dent. Tech. | Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Oral Medicine and Radiology | Oral Pathology and Microbiology | Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics | Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry | Periodontology | Prosthodontics, Crown and Bridge | Public Health Dentistry
  • Dermatology
  • Embalming and Mortuary Science
  • Emergency Medicine
  • ENT (Otorhinolaryngology)
    • Audiology
  • Gastroenterology
  • General Medicine
    • Family Medicine | Community Medicine | Public Health (General and Hons) | Internal Medicine
  • Genetics
    • Genetics and Microbiology | Genetics, Microbiology, Chemistry
  • Haematology
  • Homoeopathy
  • Immunology
  • Medical Electronics Engineering
  • Medical Electrophysiology
  • Microbiology
    • Microbiology Hons | Microbiology | Microbiology, Chemistry, Genetics | Microbiology, Genetics, and Biochemistry | Microbiology, Chemistry | Medical Microbiology and Applied Molecular Biology Hons | Pharmaceutical Microbiology
  • Nephrology
  • Neuroscience
    • Neurosciences Hons | Non-Medical | Neuro Technology | Neurochemistry | Neurophysiology
  • Nursing
    • General Nursing and Midwifery
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
    • Clinical Dietetics | Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics | Clinical Nutrition Hons | Nutrition | Nutrition and Dietetics | Nutrition and Dietetics Hons | Nutrition and Dietetics, Chemistry and Zoology | Nutrition Hons
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Ophthalmology and Optometry
    • Ophthalmic Technology | Optometry | Optometry and Visual Sciences | Optometry with Ophthalmic Technique
  • Orthopaedics
    • Orthopaedic and Plaster Techniques | Orthopaedic Neurophysiology
  • Paediatrics
  • Pathology
  • Podiatry
  • Pharmacy
    • Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology | Pharmaceutical Science | Pharma Business Management | Unani Pharmacy
  • Prosthetics and Orthotics
  • Psychiatry
    • Occupational Therapy | Epidemiology
  • Public Health (Hons.)
  • Pulmonology
    • Respiratory Therapy
  • Radiology
    • Nuclear Medicine | Nuclear Medicine Technology
  • Surgery
    • General Surgery | Operation Theatre Technology | Traumatology & Surgery
  • Unani
    • Unani Medicine and Surgery (Kamil-e-Tib-o-Jarahat) | Unani Pharmacy
  • Urology
  • Veterinary Medicine
  • Venerology and Leprosy


Read More:
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Eligibility and Requirements for MBBS

Students can enrol in Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery programmes and colleges after appearing for medical entrance exams held across the country. The eligibility criteria are as follows-

  • Candidates enrolling on MBBS programmes must have passed their 10+2 (or equivalent) examinations from a recognised Indian board with a minimum aggregate of 50% marks. 

  • Candidates must have opted for the Science stream with PCB (Physics, Chemistry, and Biology) or PCMB (Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Biology), Biology being a compulsory subject. 


MBBS Admission Procedure

The official procedure for admission into a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degree is as follows-

  • Candidates applying for MBBS must qualify for the minimum eligibility to appear for medical entrance exams. Candidates can apply for the NEET/AIMS/other entrance examinations by registering in the online portal and submitting the required documents.

  • After appearing for the entrance exams, candidates will be shortlisted based on scores, ranks, and merit lists in the counselling session for the respective colleges/entrances. 

  • Shortlisted candidates may finalise their admission at the concerned college by paying the fees and submitting the required documents for verification.


Entrance Tests

Candidates seeking admission into Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery programmes must clear National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET)- the centralized undergraduate medical entrance exam in India. 

NEET is conducted by the National Testing Authority (NTA) and offers admission to 178484 seats across 645 medical colleges, 318 dental institutions, 914 Ayush universities and 47 Veterinary Sciences colleges in India. 

NEET is conducted once every year in online/pen-and-paper mode and comprises a 200-minute long computer-based test. The paper contains a total of 200 questions of which candidates have to attempt 180 questions. It is divided into two sections-

  • Section A comprises 140 questions in total; 35 questions each from Physics, Chemistry, Botany, and Zoology, all of which are compulsory. Section A carries 560 marks. 

  • Section B comprises 60 questions in total; 15 questions each from Physics, Chemistry, Botany, and Zoology. Candidates need to attempt only 10 out of 15 questions from each subject (i.e., 40 out of the 60 questions in total). Section A carries 160 marks.

The question paper is available in two media- English and Hindi.

The maximum marks for the paper are 720, and all questions are multiple-choice questions (MCQs). 4 marks are awarded for each correct answer, while 1 mark is deducted for every incorrect answer/answer with multiple choices selected. Unanswered questions do not result in marks either being awarded or subtracted.

After appearing for the NEET entrance test, candidates who have acquired the required NEET cut-off will have to participate in the national-level counselling for Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery which is conducted by the Medical Counselling Committee (MCC).


Aptitude for MBBS

Students who are interested in anatomy and biological systems and who wish to work in the medical sector may find a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery a suitable degree to pursue. Students may gauge their aptitude for MBBS with the following criteria:

  • Keen interest and understanding of anatomical systems

  • Structural visualisation

  • Rhythm memory

  • Research skills

  • Problem identification and solving skills

  • Inductive reasoning

  • Observation power


MBBS Subjects

Subjects included in the 5.5-year Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degree include the following-

  • Anatomy

  • Physiology

  • Biochemistry

  • Medicine/Community Medicine

  • Pharmacology

  • Pathology

  • Surgery

  • ENT

  • Ophthalmology

  • Paediatrics

  • Orthopaedics

  • Psychiatry

  • Dermatology

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology

  • Toxicology and Forensics

  • Anaesthesiology 

  • Dermatology & Venereology


Top MBBS Specialisations for the Future

The most popular and lucrative specialisations to opt for in Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery are-

  • Anaesthetics

  • Radiology

  • Paediatrics

  • Ophthalmology

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology

  • Respiratory Therapy

  • Neurology

  • Dermatology


Post-graduate Study/Research Opportunities after MBBS

After completing their Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degree, students may opt for higher education with master's and doctoral degrees in the medical sciences. Here are a few postgraduate study and research opportunities in India:

  • Doctor of Medicine (MD)- 3 years

  • Master of Surgery (MS)- 3 years

  • PG Diploma- 9 months to 2 years

  • Diplomate of National Board (DNB)- 3 years

  • Master of Chirurgiae (MCh)- 5-6 years

  • DM (Doctorate of Medicine)- 5 years

  • PhD in Medicine- 3-5 years


Popular entrance examinations held across India to offer admission into postgraduate medical courses include the following–


Also Read:
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Career prospects/Placements after MBBS

After completing their Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degree from an institution recognised by the Medical Council of India as well as completing the mandatory one-year-long medical internship, aspiring doctors have to register with the Indian Medical Register through the MCI Screening Test, also known as the Foreign Medical Graduates Examination (FMGE) conducted by the National Board of Examinations (NBE).

After successfully registering with the Indian Medical Register, aspiring medical professionals can choose from several career prospects in the medical and healthcare sector-

  • Allergists/Immunologist

  • Anesthesiologist

  • Cardiologist

  • Critical Care Medicine Specialist

  • Dentist

  • Dermatologist

  • Emergency Medicine Specialist

  • Endocrinologist

  • Gastroenterologist

  • Geriatric Medicine Specialist

  • GP General Practioner

  • Haematologist

  • Hospice and Palliative Medicine Specialist

  • Infectious Disease Specialist

  • Internists

  • Nephrologist

  • Neurologist

  • Obstetricians and Gynaecologist

  • Oncologist

  • Ophthalmologist

  • Orthopaedic Doctor

  • Osteopath

  • Otolaryngologist

  • Paediatrician

  • Pathologist

  • Physician

  • Physician Assistant

  • Podiatrist

  • Preventive Medicine Specialist

  • Psychiatrist

  • Pulmonologist

  • Radiation Therapist

  • Radiologist

  • Rheumatologist

  • Surgeon

  • Urologist


Starting Salaries after MBBS

The average starting salaries for Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery graduates range between 4 to 5 lakhs per annum. Salaries of experienced medical professionals can go as high as 50-60 LPA. 


Subjects Similar to MBBS

Students interested in pursuing a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degree might find overlapping interests in several similar subjects abounding in the medical, science, and engineering sectors. Alternate subjects of study include-

  • Psychology and Psychiatry

  • Nursing and Midwifery

  • Medical Laboratory Technology

  • Biotechnical Engineering

  • Biochemistry

  • Natural Sciences

  • Physics

  • Chemistry

  • Mathematics

  • Actuarial Science

  • Healthcare Science

  • Speech and Language Therapy

  • Paramedic Sciences

  • Pharmacology

  • Allied Health Sciences


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