The 15th Finance Commission has recommended that states, along with Ladakh and J&K, be given 42 per cent share in the divisible tax pool of the Centre during the period 2021-22 to 2025-26. The share of states is only41 per cent.
The panel’s report also provides a range for fiscal deficit and debt path of both the Union and states. It further recommended additional borrowing room to states based on performance in power sector reforms. The Finance Commission is a constitutional body that gives suggestions on Centre-state financial relations. The report of the 15th Finance Commission was tabled in the Lok Sabha by finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman when she presented the budget for 2021-22.
In order to maintain predictability and stability of resources, especially during the pandemic, the 15th Finance Commission has recommended "maintaining the vertical devolution at 41 per cent – the same as in our report for 2020-21,” an official statement said. It is at the same level of 42 per cent of the divisible pool as recommended by the 14th Finance Commission, the statement said, adding that, however, a required adjustment has been made of “about 1 per cent due to the changed status of the erstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir into the new union territories of Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir”.
As per the glide path, fiscal deficit should be 6 per cent in 2021-22, 5.5 per cent in 2022-23, 5 per cent in 2023-24, 4.5 per cent in 2024-25, and 4 per cent in 2025-26.
The panel, headed by former bureaucrat N K Singh, had in November last year submitted its report titled "Finance Commission in COVID Times" to President Ram Nath Kovind.
The gross tax revenue for a five-year period is expected to be Rs 135.2 lakh crore. Out of that, divisible pool is estimated to be Rs 103 lakh crore, as per the commission. States' share at 41 per cent of divisible pool comes to 42.2 lakh crore for 2021-26 period.
"Including total grants of Rs 10.33 lakh crore and tax devolution of Rs 42.2 lakh crore, aggregate transfers to states is estimated to remain at around 50.9 per cent of the divisible pool during 2021-26 period," it said.
Total transfers (devolution + grants) constitutes about 34 per cent of estimated gross revenue receipts of the union leaving adequate fiscal space for the union to meet its resource requirements and spending obligations on national development priorities, the commission added.
The commission was asked to give its recommendations on wide-ranging issues. Apart from tax devolution, the commission was asked to recommend performance incentives for states in many areas like power sector, adoption of DBT and solid waste management as well as funding mechanism for defence and internal security.
The report provided range for fiscal deficit and debt path of both the Union and states. It also recommended additional borrowing room to states based on performance in power sector reforms.
In view of the uncertainty that prevails at the stage that the 15th Finance Commission has done its analysis, as well as the contemporary realities and challenges, "we recognise that the FRBM Act needs a major restructuring and recommend that the time-table for defining and achieving debt sustainability may be examined by a High-powered inter-governmental group," the statement said.
This high-powered group can craft the new FRBM (Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act) framework and oversee its implementation, it added.
It suggested that the union and state governments amend their FRBM Acts, based on the recommendations of the group, so as to ensure that their legislations are consistent with the fiscal sustainability framework put in place. This group could also be tasked to oversee the implementation of the 15th Finance Commission’s diverse recommendations. State governments may explore formation of independent public debt management cells which will chart their borrowing programme efficiently, it added