1984: CC Block post office is inaugurated on July 5 by urban development minister Prasanta Sur.While post offices had come up in AB Block, Labony Estate, Sech Bhawan and AE Market before this, CC Block’s is the first in the township to have its own spacious departmental building
1939: On July 8, social activist Vaidyanatha Iyer enters the Meenakshi temple at Madurai along with six Dalit friends. Though the move comes shortly after the Temple Entry Authorisation and Indemnity Act is passed, lifting restrictions on Dalits from entering temples, it is opposed by upper-caste leaders. The act becomes a milestone in the temple entry movement in the Madras Presidency.
2017: The Goods and Services Tax (GST) comes into effect from July 1. It is a single indirect tax that replaces multiple taxes levied by Central and state governments. It is meant to simplify the tax system and boost economic growth but its implementation and complexity are criticised for years to come.
1757: Siraj-ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, is executed on July 2. Betrayed by his commander Mir Jafar, Siraj lost the Battle of Plassey and was trying to escape when Jafar’s soldiers captured him. His defeat and death mark the start of the East India Company’s rule in Bengal and later the subcontinent.
1798: The Battle of the Pyramids is fought on July 21, between the Egyptian Mamluk forces and Napoleon’s French army. It is a decisive battle during the French Invasion of Egypt and is won by France. The battle is named, by Napoleon, after the Great Pyramid of Giza, even though it is fought nine miles away from it. This victory seals the French conquest of Egypt.
1790: Scottish economist Adam Smith dies on July 17. Known as the father of economics, Smith wrote influential books like The Wealth of Nations and developed concepts of absolute advantage, division of labour and promoted free market economic theory. His ideas laid the foundation for modern economics.
2003: The Pyrenean ibex, a kind of wild goat, goes extinct for the second time. The animal was endemic to the Pyrenees mountains between France and Spain and in 2000, the last Pyrenean ibex, Celia, died, making the species extinct. But scientists preserved her tissue samples and attempted to clone her multiple times. A clone is finally born on July 30, 2003, but dies in minutes due to physical defects.
Sports & entertainment
1593: Italian Baroque painter Artemisia Gentileschi is born on July 8. Despite being one of the most prominent female artists of her time, she faces numerous challenges. Early in her life she is raped by another artiste and the trial threatens to overshadow her achievements. Gentileschi’s art often depicts strong female characters from mythology.
1990: Vivek, the son of ghazal singers Chitra and Jagjit Singh, dies in a road accident on July 27. Distraught, Chitra retires from the public eye and gives up singing. Before this, Chitra-Jagjit had popularised the ghazal genre and created some of the most successful music of the 1970s and 80s. They were known as the king and queen of ghazal.
2008: In what is widely considered one of the greatest tennis matches ever, Rafael Nadal defeats five-time defending champion Roger Federer to win the Wimbledon men’s singles title. The 4-hour-48-minute game is the second-longest championship match in the tournament’s history. With a scorecard of 6- 4, 6-4, 6-7(5-7), 6-7(8-10), 9-7, this is Nadal’s first Wimbledon title.