Fact check: Trump's shift on concrete wall, tariff myth
Forced to back down on a government shutdown, President Donald Trump is shifting his story regarding his campaign promise to build a border wall. He's also once again inflating the number of immigrants in the US illegally.
The President insists he never proposed a concrete wall, promoting instead a 'see-through' barrier made of steel. That's a change on how he talked in the past. He repeatedly pledged in 2016 to build a 'big beautiful wall' and have Mexico pay for it, conjuring up images of an imposing, 'concrete plank' structure along America's southern border, too tall and strong for anyone to climb over.
On his claim that at least 25 million immigrants are in the US illegally, Trump is contradicted by his own homeland security secretary and other sources.
The government has reopened for three weeks while Trump tries again to persuade Congress to approve $5.7 billion to build segments of a border wall.
His retreat in the partial shutdown capped a head-spinning week in which Trump also repeated questionable assertions that a border wall would stop crime and drugs from 'pouring in,' declared that the remains of US service members are 'back home where they belong' from North Korea even though that mission already has run into a roadblock, and exaggerated economic performance under his presidency.
A look at the rhetoric and the facts:
Trump: 'We have billions of dollars coming into our treasury — billions — from China. We never had 10 cents coming into our treasury; now we have billions coming in.'
Remarks at a meeting with Republican lawmakers Thursday
The facts: This is wildly off base. The notion that the US suddenly has revenue coming in from tariffs, thanks to his trade war, defies history that goes back to the founding of the republic. President George Washington signed the Tariff Act into law in 1789 — the first major act of Congress — and duties from imports were a leading source of revenue for the government before the advent of the modern tax system early in the 20th century. Tariffs on goods, specifically from China, are not remotely new, either. They are simply higher in some cases than they were before.
Tariffs are a decidedly modest portion of revenue in modern times and Trump has not changed that with the escalation of his trade dispute with China. Customs and duties generated $41.3 billion in revenues last year, up from $34.6 billion in 2017 (far more than 10 cents). That $6.7 billion increase occurred in part because of the President's tariffs. But it amounted to just 0.16 per cent of federal spending.
Moreover, tariffs are taxes paid largely by US business and consumers, not foreign countries.
Trump: 'There are at least 25,772,342 illegal aliens, not the 11,000,000 that have been reported for years, in our country. So ridiculous! DHS.'
Trump's tweet on Sunday
The facts: It's not that high, according to his own homeland security secretary as well as independent estimates.
The non-partisan Pew Hispanic Center estimates 10.7 million immigrants were living in the US illegally in 2016, the most recent data available. Advocacy groups on both sides of the immigration issue have similar estimates.
At a House hearing last month, homeland security secretary Kirstjen Nielsen acknowledged the number was 'somewhere' between 11 million and 22 million, lower than Trump's 25 million. Trump has previously asserted there were 30 million to 35 million here illegally.
According to Pew, the number of immigrants in the US illegally had reached a height of 12.2 million in 2007, representing about 4 per cent of the US population, before declining in part because of a weakening US economy.
Trump: 'These barriers are made of steel, have see-through visibility, which is very important.... We do not need 2,000 miles of concrete wall from sea to shining sea. We never did. We never proposed that. We never wanted that, because we have barriers at the border where natural structures are as good as anything that we can build.'
Trump's remarks on Friday in the Rose Garden
The facts: Actually, he did pledge a wall made of concrete along the southern border. It's true he did not say there needed to be 2,000 miles of it.
For example, in a January 18, 2016, speech in New Hampshire, Trump said: 'No windows, no nothing, precast concrete going very high. Let's see about concrete going very high.'
In an August 11, 2016, speech in Florida, he said: 'The politicians would come up to me, and they'd say, 'You know, Donald, you can't build the wall.' I said, 'You have to be kidding. You have to be kidding. Concrete plank, you have to be kidding. Precast, precast, right? Boom. Bing. Done. Keep going.''
He referred again to a concrete wall in a January 11, 2018, interview with the Wall Street Journal, even while signalling those plans might change, saying: 'If you have a wall this thick and it's solid concrete from ground to 32 feet high, which is a high wall, much higher than people planned. You go 32 feet up and you don't know who's over here. You're here, you've got the wall, and there's some other people here.... I can understand why I have to have see-through.'
And as recently as December 31, Trump suggested a concrete wall was still being considered, tweeting, 'An all concrete Wall was NEVER ABANDONED.'
Trump now commonly refers to the wall he promised as 'steel slats' or 'steel barriers'.
Regarding the wall's length, Trump has noted as far back as 2015 that it need not run 2,000 miles, because natural barriers would account for some of the border distance. And former homeland security secretary John Kelly told lawmakers in 2017 that it would not be 'from sea to shining sea.'
Trump: 'What's happening is the drugs are pouring in. And, yes, they come through the ports of entry, but the big trucks come through areas where you don't have a wall and you have wide-open spaces.... They're loaded up with drugs.'
On Thursday in meeting with Republican lawmakers
The facts: His suggestion that a wall would stop most drugs from 'pouring' into the US defies his government's findings on how the illegal substances get in. Most of it is smuggled through official border crossings, not remote stretches of the border.
The drug enforcement administration says 'only a small percentage' of heroin seized by US authorities comes across on territory between ports of entry. The same is true of drugs generally.
In a 2018 report, the agency said the most common trafficking technique by transnational criminal organisations is to hide drugs in passenger vehicles or tractor-trailers as they drive into the US through entry ports, where they are stopped and subject to inspection. They also employ buses, cargo trains and tunnels, the report says, citing other smuggling methods that also would not be choked off by a border wall.
Trump: 'Walls work.... We really have no choice but to build a powerful wall or steel barrier.'
The President's remarks on Friday in the Rose Garden
Trump: 'Without a Wall it all doesn't work.'
A tweet on Thursday
The facts: There is no clear evidence how well border walls or other barriers actually work.
The Government Accountability Office, Congress' auditing arm, reported in 2017 that the government does not have a way to measure how well barriers deter illegal immigration from Mexico. Despite $2.3 billion spent by the government on such construction from 2007 to 2015, the GAO found that authorities 'cannot measure the contribution of fencing to border security operations along the southwest border because it has not developed metrics for this assessment.'
Few people dispute that barriers can contribute to a drop in crossings. When barriers were built in the Border Patrol's Yuma, Arizona, sector in the mid-2000s, arrests for illegal crossings plummeted 94 per cent in three years. When barriers were built in San Diego in the 1990s and early 2000s, arrests fell 80 per cent over seven years. But both areas also saw sharp increases in Border Patrol staffing during that time, making it difficult to pinpoint why illegal crossings fell so dramatically.
Trump: 'BUILD A WALL & CRIME WILL FALL!'
Tweet on Sunday
The facts: His assertion is at odds with several studies that found immigration does not lead to increased crime. Trump's claim that his border wall is under construction is also misleading.
Multiple studies from social scientists and the libertarian think tank Cato Institute have found that people in the US illegally are less likely to commit crime than are American citizens, and legal immigrants are even less likely to do so.
A March study by the journal Criminology found 'undocumented immigration does not increase violence.'
The study, which looked at the years 1990 through 2014, said states with bigger shares of such people have lower crime rates.
As well, a study in 2017 by Robert Adelman, a sociology professor at University of Buffalo, analysed 40 years of crime data in 200 metropolitan areas and found that immigrants helped lower crime.
On construction of a wall, no new miles of barrier construction have been completed under Trump. Existing fencing has been replaced or strengthened in a few areas. It's true that many miles of barrier are in service — about 650 miles (1,050 kilometers) of fencing — but that was done by previous administrations.
Trump: 'The economy is doing great. More people working in USA today than at any time in our HISTORY.'
Tweet on Thursday
The facts: It's true that more people are working now, but that is because of population growth. A more relevant measure is the proportion of Americans with jobs, and that is still far below record highs.
According to Labour Department data, 60.6 per cent of people in the US 16 years and older were working in December. That's below the all-time high of 64.7 per cent in April 2000, though higher than the 59.9 per cent when Trump was inaugurated in January 2017.
Trump: 'The economy is one of the best in our history, with unemployment at a 50 year low, and the Stock Market ready to again break a record (set by us many times) - & all you heard yesterday, based on a phony story, was Impeachment. You want to see a Stock Market Crash, Impeach Trump!'
Tweet on January 19
The facts: The economy is healthy but not one of the best in history. Also, there are signs it is weakening after a spurt of growth last year.
The economy expanded at an annual rate of 4.2 per cent in the second quarter last year. That was the best showing under Trump and the highest in four years. In the late 1990s, growth topped 4 per cent for four straight years and even reached 7.2 per cent in 1984.
Almost all independent economists expect slower growth this year as the effect of the Trump administration's tax cuts fade, trade tensions and slower global growth hold back exports, and higher interest rates make it more expensive to borrow to buy cars and homes.
The stock market reached a record high in early October when the Dow Jones industrial average topped 26,000, but markets have fallen and are not about to break records. The Dow closed at 24,737 on Friday.