| Test case
The athlete’s age and competitive experience may be considered in determining whether the anti-doping rule violation was the athlete’s fault or the result of negligence. When a prohibited substance or its markers or metabolites is detected in an athlete’s specimen...the athlete must also be able to demonstrate how the prohibited substance entered his or her system.
...For violations of articles...[concerning trafficking in prohibited substance or administration of a prohibited substance or prohibited method to any athlete] the period of ineligibility imposed shall be a minimum of four years up to lifetime ineligibility. An anti-doping rule violation involving a minor shall be considered a particularly serious violation, and, if committed by athlete support personnel for violations other than specified stimulants... shall result in lifetime ineligibility for such athlete support personnel. In addition, violations of articles of non-sporting laws and regulations may be reported to the competent administrative, professional or judicial authorities.
For violations of article...[concerning applicable requirements for out-of-competition testing], the period of ineligibility shall be a minimum of 3 months and a maximum of 2 years.
All competitive results obtained from the date a positive sample was collected, or other doping violation occurred, through the commencement of any provisional suspension or ineligibility period, shall be disqualified with all of the resulting consequences including forfeiture of any medals, points and prizes.
The period of ineligibility shall start on the date of the hearing decision providing for ineligibility or, if the hearing is waived, on the date ineligibility is accepted or otherwise imposed. Any period of provisional suspension (whether imposed or voluntarily accepted) shall be credited against the total period of ineligibility to be served. Where required by fairness, such as delays in the hearing process or other aspects of doping control not attributable to the athlete, the body imposing the sanction may start the period of ineligibility at an earlier date going as far back as the date of sample collection.
No person who has been declared ineligible or provisionally suspended may, during the period of ineligibility or suspension, participate in any capacity in an event or activity authorized or organized by any signatory or receive any financial support or other sport-related benefit from any signatory or government.
As a condition to regaining eligibility, an athlete must, during any period of suspension or ineligibility, make himself or herself available for out-of-competition testing by any anti-doping organization having testing jurisdiction, including providing current and accurate whereabouts information.
Nothing in this code precludes any signatory or government accepting the code from enforcing its own rules for the purpose of imposing sanctions on another sporting body over which the signatory or government has legal competence.