On a recent Saturday night, Savannah Stern earned $300 to hang out for seven hours at a party wearing nothing but a feather boa.
The veteran of more than 350 hard-core pornography productions took the job to earn extra cash and to network. But the word at the 35th anniversary party for Hustler magazine was not heartening, especially among the roughly 75 other women working there.
At least five girls I havent seen in a while came up to me and said, Savannah, are you working? said Stern, who started in the industry four years ago and, like most adult performers, uses a stage name. I had to say, No, not really, and they all said, Yeah, Im not either.
The adult entertainment business, centred in Los Angeles San Fernando Valley, has weathered several recessions since it took off with the advent of home video in the 1980s. But this time the industry is not dealing with just a weakened economy. A growing abundance of free content on the Internet is undercutting consumers willingness to pay for porn and with it the ability of many workers to earn a living in the business.
For Stern, 23, the rapid decline of job opportunities in the porn business has been dramatic. She has gone from working four or five days a week to one and now has employers pressuring her to do male-female sex scenes for $700, a 30 per cent discount from the $1,000 fee that used to be the industry standard.
Less than two years ago, Stern earned close to $1,50,000 annually, sometimes turned down work and drove a Mercedes-Benz. Now shes aggressively reaching out for jobs and making closer to $50,000 a year.
As for that Mercedes? Shes replacing it with a used Chevy Trailblazer from her parents.
The opportunities in this industry really are disappearing, Stern said. Its extremely stressful.
Industry insiders estimate that since 2007, revenue for most adult production and distribution companies has declined 30 per cent to 50 per cent and the number of films made has fallen sharply.
Weve gone through recessions before, but weve never been hit from every side like this, said Mark Spiegler, head of the Spiegler Girls talent agency, who has worked in porn since 1995.
Its the free stuff thats killing us, and thats not going away, said Dion Jurasso, owner of porn production company Combat Zone, which has seen its business fall about 50 per cent in the past three years.
Porn is hardly the only segment of the media industry struggling with these issues. But its problems appear to be more severe. Although online piracy has forced big changes in the music industry and is starting to affect movies and television, it has upended adult entertainment.
At least five of the 100 top US websites are portals for free pornography, referred to in the industry as tube sites, according to Internet traffic ranking service Alexa.com. Some of their content is amateur work uploaded by users and some is acquired from cheap back catalogues, but much of it is pirated.
Sites such as Pornhub, YouPorn and RedTube attract more users than TMZ and the Huffington Post. The porn sites are even bigger than Pirate Bay, the top portal for illegal downloads of movies, TV shows and music.
Frustratingly, for porn producers and distributors, none of these sites appears to be making much money. Suzann Knudsen, a marketing director for PornoTube, said the sites parent, Adult Entertainment Broadcast Network, uses it to attract customers for paid video on demand.
PornoTube isnt a piggy bank, she said. Its true value is in traffic.
The adult entertainment business, which was previously in the vanguard of home video, satellite and cable television and digital distribution, now finds itself leading the rest of the entertainment industry in losses from them.
The death of the DVD business has been more accelerated in the adult business than mainstream, said Bill Asher, co-chairman of adult industry giant Vivid Entertainment, who estimates that his companys revenue is down more than 20 per cent this year.
We always said that once the Internet took off, wed be OK, he added. It never crossed our minds that wed be competing with people who just give it away for free.
There are plenty of other signs of the porn industrys pain. Attendance at the Adult Entertainment Expo, an annual trade show in Las Vegas thats open some days to the public, was down 20 per cent this year. Pay-per-view programming, a key revenue source for the industry, has fallen about 50 per cent from its peak three or four years ago, according to a person familiar with the cable and satellite TV business.
Reliable revenue and employment figures for the adult industry dont exist, since no analysts or economists track it. Adult Video News estimated in 2006 that it was worth $13 billion, but Paul Fishbein, editor of the trade publication, said the number was an educated guess.
Almost all of the companies in our industry are privately held, and they keep the cards close to their chests, said Diane Duke, executive director of the Free Speech Coalition, an industry trade group.
Kelly Labanco doesnt need industry estimates to know whats happening. The makeup artist, who has worked in porn for five years, is landing half as many jobs as she did a year ago and has seen her pay drop from a high of $250 an hour to less than $100.
A lot of companies say they dont even need makeup artists now and the girls can do it themselves, said Labanco, who has returned to her previous job doing freelance music publicity to help pay the bills.
Caroline Pierce, an adult film performer who lives in Las Vegas but flies to Los Angeles for work, said many companies have pressured her to do more scenes for less money.
Instead of paying you $800 to do one, theyll pay you $1,200 for both, she explained.
The only growth market most executives see is mobile devices, since they let consumers watch porn anywhere and in relative privacy.
Major companies that serve as a gateway to content on cell phones in the US such as Verizon dont allow explicit adult content. But like cable and satellite companies in the 1990s, they may change their minds when they see the potential profit.
Anyone betting against porn being a meaningful driver of traffic and revenue on mobile networks would be making a bad choice based on history, said Charles Golvin, an analyst at Forrester Research.
Adult performers with big followings probably will continue to prosper, since they often work under a guaranteed contract and have fans who buy all their work. Business managers for Belladonna and Tera Patrick, two of the industrys biggest stars, said their clients were using their celebrity to make money in other ways, like dancing in exotic clubs and licensing their name to sex toys and lingerie.
But for the middle class of the industry, those opportunities dont exist.
It seems at this point that if you havent established a well-known name, its really hard to keep working, performer Alexa Jordan said.
Savannah Stern is adjusting to that reality. Shes shooting scenes for her own subscription website and planning a tour of exotic dance clubs to earn money from her name while she can. After that, she hopes to go to college for an interior design degree and work in her family's real estate development and contracting business.
I wish I would have never gotten into it, Stern said of her career in porn. When you get used to a certain lifestyle, its really hard to cut back and realise this may not be forever.