Editorial 1/ Uneasy head
Editorial 2/ Roadblock
Right on target
Pack the travelling bags
Document/ In search of caring professionals
Letters to the editor

A statement of helplessness on any issue by the prime minister of a country is an ominous portent. Mr Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s statement in Lucknow that he had failed to resolve the Ayodhya issue and that there was no other alternative save waiting for the court’s verdict can only cause alarm among those who are interested in preserving the secular credentials of India. The admission of failure is also a comment on the pressures involved in keeping afloat a coalition government. Mr Vajpayee knows that none of his allies in the National Democratic Alliance has any interest in pushing through the Hindutva agenda. Neither is Mr Vajpayee, as his pronouncements and policy prescriptions have made clear, interested in such an agenda. As a leader of the NDA, he has a mandate from his allies to maintain the status quo in Ayodhya. But Mr Vajpayee, whatever be his personal views on the matter, and his party, the Bharatiya Janata Party, are both members of a bigger ideological formation called the sangh parivar. The more extreme and vocal sections of that family have made it clear that they are not willing to budge from their commitment to build a temple to Ram in Ayodhya. Mr Vajpayee’s helplessness is located firmly between the mandate he has from the NDA and intransigence of the Vishwa Hindu Parishad. Asked to choose between governance and ideology, Mr Vajpayee this time has pleaded helplessness and sought to temporize by pointing to the court’s decision.

The legal decision and its aftermath are not without serious problems for Mr Vajpayee. Whatever be the court’s verdict, the prime minister can in no way guarantee that it will be implemented without violence and disruption. Judging from the statements made by the leaders of the VHP, it is in no mood to listen to legal niceties. It knows, from its experience of December 6, 1992 that mob frenzy, if it can be ideologically manipulated and directed, has no respect for the rule of law and the institutions of civil society. Mr Vajpayee’s assertion that a breakdown of law and order will not be permitted has a hollow ring to it. The Ides of March deadline of the VHP thus looms large over Mr Vajpayee’s government and on the next government to be installed in Lucknow a few weeks from now. If the BJP fails to cobble together a government in Uttar Pradesh, the VHP will face formidable opposition in its efforts to build a Ram mandir in Ayodhya. Violence and disruption are the only predictable consequences of such an eventuality. Both scenarios will need something more positive from the prime minister than a plea of helplessness. Moreover, too strong a statement of failure, as Mr Vajpayee well knows, is bound to have political repercussions even within his own party where there are individuals keen to have potshots at him. Mr Vajpayee must be aware that he is walking on a razor’s edge.


There are too many apologies littering the ground. The chief minister of West Bengal, Mr Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, has made another one. He is sorry for the painful travails that people in Calcutta and for miles around had to go through on Friday. Within the city, public transport at various places either came to a standstill or simply vanished, people hung about in large groups at bus stops or tried to walk home, because the Communist Party of India (Marxist) had organized two processions from end to end of the city. Trains had stopped because of barricades and blockades, organized by the Confederation of Indian Trade Unions backed by the CPI(M), beginning at Kalyani and fanning out. Restoring normal movement for trains took up the best part of the next day. It is not clear how far matters were improved by the fact that the chief minister felt regretful that such things had to happen. What is clear, however, is that the chief minister feels such things do have to happen. A democracy is for the people, and the processions and train blockades were in the cause of the people. Mr Bhattacharjee must acknowledge that it is a difficult feat to walk simultaneously on two different roads. The government declared on the last day of December last year that processions, train or road barricades, and all other disruptions of normal life violate the rights of citizens. This seemed to have the chief minister’s stamp on it. Evidently, a helpless public is now to accept that such declarations are meant merely as politically correct rhetoric in these professionally oriented times. They might even be purely reassuring noises directed at potential investors.

The “people’s cause” too needs closer examination. The railway and state police are engaged in clearing out hawkers who occupy space illegally in railway stations. CPI(M) leaders have blamed the police for not warning the CITU and the hawkers well in advance before going into action. Like all blame games, this one too has exposed illogic. There is no reason why the police should tell everybody before they do their job. The CPI(M)’s reaction suggests, rather shamefully, that a well-coordinated machine has gone wrong. Had it worked smoothly, the hawkers would have been moved out, they would have lain low for a while and then come back — and no one would have protested too much. All sections would have been happy with their respective token gestures. Mr Bhattacharjee definitely needs to decide which road he will choose to tread, that of a chief minister or of a partyman.


The latest report of the Reserve Bank of India on currency and finance for 2000-01 is distinguished by its excellent analysis and depiction of the stark policy choices before the country. Importantly, the report lays emphasis on countering the deflationary trend in the economy and the need to reverse it. A significant feature of the report is that it recognizes that deflation, not inflation, is now the enemy. Further, pursuit of anti-inflationary measures in the contest of a deflationary trend can be counterproductive and cause of loss of output. This is the main message of the report, which is based on rather complex econometric work and makes it a scholar’s delight.

Based on their exhaustive analysis, the RBI experts conclude that below a threshold level of 5 per cent inflation, serious loss of output can be caused by further decreasing inflation. Specifically, the output loss generated by a 1 per cent decrease in inflation below the threshold level will be about 2 percent. The report introduced the concept of a sacrifice ratio. Based on a study of cross-country experience, RBI experts conclude that the “sacrifice ratio” for India is 2. Pursuit of measures to reduce inflation by 1 percentage point below the threshold level of 5 per cent will, it is said, result in an output loss of 2 per cent. The implication is that a continued attack on yesterday’s danger of inflation may lead the economy into greater depths of today’s risky disinflation.

The report analyses Indian experience in the context of what is going on in other economies. It is fair to quote in extenso from the report. It starts: “A situation of persistent deflation can set off a spiral of decline in activity, deflationary expectations, zero interest rates and an ineffectiveness of monetary policy — what has been termed as the ‘liquidity trap’. In such a scenario, deflation prompts consumers to postpone their current spending in expectations of fall in price in future leading to decline in demand and further fall in prices, thus generating the deflation cycle. Low or zero inflation imparts inflexibility to wages, as workers’ unwillingness to accept a cut in nominal wages increases the real wage burden to the entrepreneurs, prompting them to prune the size of their workforce and deepening the recession. It also makes interest rates and other financial prices rigid, making the relative price signals ineffective as interest rates cannot fall below zero (negative) and hence real interest rates remain high. Moreover, deflation increases the real debt burden causing bankruptcies and bank failures.”

These observations are especially relevant in the light of the experience of Japan, facing a threat of deflation and the European Union, also confronted by the spectre of disinflation.

Falling prices may lock the economy into a spiral of economic decline. The report points out that the sacrifice of output as a result of continued pursuit of disinflation may increase in the context of structural rigidities and may lead to higher unemployment. A tightening of the monetary policy might, therefore, have counterproductive effect in the context of disinflation. Mindless pursuit of disinflationary measures in the current state of deflation would lead to output loss and loss of jobs.

The RBI’s report discusses the various controversies that have marked the area of monetary and fiscal policy in recent years. It surveys the debate, which had taken place, on “some unpleasant monetary arithmetic”. Protagonists of this debate had pointed out that in certain circumstances too tight a monetary policy may itself be harmful, in that it could lead to unpleasant consequences in the future. The suggestion is that some relaxation of a rigid stance against monetization may be justified.

The question is how high a monetized deficit will be desirable. The report concludes that monetization of deficit, namely, printing of money of finance the reserves, has already gone far enough. It seems to the present writer that the subject of limits of monetization should continue to be investigated further in the light of actual developments in the Indian economy.

The report clearly brings out that public investment in infrastructure may actually crowd in instead of crowd out private investment. The logic for increased public investment, however, comes up against the implication for fiscal deficit. Advocates of pump priming to finance a higher fiscal deficit come up against the limits of money financing. Radical as the report is in its analysis, it has stopped short of recommending radical solutions, needed to reverse the deceleration of the economy.

It cites — without specifically approving — the suggestions made by S L. Shetty in the Economic and Political Weekly of July 29, 2001 on the creation of massive additional public investments financed by specially floated bonds to finance railways, roads and agricultural infrastructure.

Where banks are awash with liquidity, it is not only appropriate but essential that government adapts and adopts Shetty’s well-considered suggestions to create public-private partnership to issue bonds to be funded by banks and take up massive investments in power, roads and railways. Shetty has rightly emphasized the need to ensure that such investments should be coupled with mandated measures of adequate cost recovery, tariff in the case of power, user charges in the case of railways and toll roads and irrigation. Given the current deflationary situation, the need and justification for investments of the order suggested seems inescapable.

What exactly should be included in the fiscal deficit? Even at the time that the Maastricht treaty came up with the rigid targets of fiscal deficit, the chancellor, Gordon Brown, had pointed out that insistence on simplistic fiscal deficit targets could at times lead to stagnation of economies. He emphasized the need to take adequate care to allow for investment outlays to be kept out of the exercise. While fiscal deficit in the shape of revenue deficit may have to be frowned upon, it is not so when it includes necessary public investment, especially in infrastructure.

There is a more substantive question to be considered in this context namely, the prejudice among fiscal economists against investment by the public sector. When bonds are issued by, say, the Dabhol Power Company to invest in power facilities, the investment is not considered inflationary. When the same investment is incurred by a public sector entity or a public-private partnership, it calls forth rebuke. Does ownership make a significant difference, unless it be based on prejudice against public ownership and the implied inefficiencies?

The problem posed by the Indian economy and the threat on inflation, however, calls for a review of conventional wisdom. We have to recognize that adequate stimulus to the economy cannot come about if we leave it to the private sector. Neither fiscal dogma nor monetary orthodoxy should be permitted to abort a programme of revival of India’s economy, faced as it is by an imminent threat of deflation.

A straitjacket for fiscal purpose can become highly counterproductive. Not entirely without reason have certain objections been raised from this point of view to the fiscal responsibility and management legislation in its present form. It is necessary to refine this legislation to take into account the need to counter the adverse impact of the current cyclical trends of deflation.

In devising measures to overcome the economic downturn, the finance minister of India should not be discouraged by the requirement of fiscal marksmanship. The time has come to take bold and concrete measures to overcome the slowdown in the economy by additional stimulus to investment. Let it not turn out that in the pursuit of fiscal deficit targets the battle against deflation is lost. Given the comfortable foreign exchange reserves and low level of inflation, the risks in a fiscal stimulus are not likely to be too great. The costs of inaction may, however, be too great.

The RBI has also a clear responsibility to ensure that the credit channel does not continue to suffer from its recent decline and deceleration. The fear of lending in Indian banks caused by fear of rising non performing assets, has, in fact led to the decline in growth of non-food credit, which in turn, leads to a vicious cycle of low credit and low growth. This leads to further deceleration of the economy. The RBI should use its admittedly large powers, not only to enforce observance of prudential norms but also to expedite the flow of credit — both funded and unfunded.

Unless the RBI takes up an expediter’s role — which it did earlier with reference to export credit and other forms of priority sector lending — the economy will continue its slowdown. The RBI may itself discover how its directives and mandates need to be modified to make for a freer flow of adequate credit. The government has a duty to ensure that industrial and trading activity in India gets due support from adequate supply of credit in time and in the quality it is needed.

The choices before the decision-makers are uncomfortably complex. It should, however, be the aim of the government to emphasize investment-let growth rather than pursuit of unattainable goals of fiscal deficit reduction. Policymakers should undertake a bold programme of investment in infrastructure, which seems necessary and which would help not only to revive the economy but also increase its productivity. The RBI’s latest report provides sufficient justification.

The author is former governor, Reserve Bank of India


In an innovative move, the Kerala Tourism Development Corporation recently introduced a comprehensive insurance package for tourists visiting the state. Announcing the insurance package, the state tourism minister, K.V. Thomas, said that the package, introduced in association with an insurance company, offered compensation to tourists staying in the six premium properties of the KTDC for a minimum of three nights. It will cover any mishaps which may occur during the stay. The package consists of a “personal accident scheme”, which ensures an insured sum of up to two lakh rupees in the case of death or disablement by external, visible or violent means.

This package has other attractive components as well — insurance cover for medical expenses, loss or destruction of baggage, additional expenses incurred towards alternative travel arrangements if damage caused to the conveying vehicle forces a detour, and expenses incurred for obtaining a duplicate or a fresh passport. It is not for nothing that Kerala has become a global tourist attraction in recent times. The state government was quick to realize that selling the state to tourists would be easier if tourists felt comfortable with the levels of insurance on offer.

This scheme, as is evident from its outlines, is for high-end tourists. But, once it catches on and starts attracting more tourists to the state, the government might make an attempt to provide such schemes for all tourists, irrespective of their paying power. It may be a small step but the vision it points towards is certainly a large one. It indicates a change in the government’s approach: tourism is now seen as business worth investing in.

What the scheme attracts attention to is the need to think beyond the immediate needs of the tourists. As long as they are on alien soil, their need for security against unforeseen dangers is heightened. This must be addressed by the tourism authorities. In fact, tourism cannot be regarded as a purely financial activity. It is an activity with far-reaching implications for the economy as a whole. There is a great deal left to be done to make Indian tourism packages more comprehensive in their coverage and more individualistic in their approach.

Tourists are important economic agents in that they promote a location as a tourist spot to the world. On them depends the livelihood of a large number of people, particularly in and around the places of tourist interest; they help countries earn foreign exchange without physical transportation of goods and services to foreign countries. In other words, they can play a leading role in the development of the basic infrastructure of the places of tourist interest.

Attracting these important agents of development cannot be, and should not be, left to chance. The public and private sectors should come together in partnerships to provide “total tourism solutions”, covering all aspects of a tourist’s life during his stay.

These aspects should include the tourist’s physical security, easy and well-planned coverage of as many places of tourist interest within the shortest possible span of time, proper briefing about the places of interest, accessory facilities like telecommunications, internet, automatic teller and credit card machines, short-distance air and taxi services, lodging facilities along the highways, tending to special needs, such as dietary requirements and so on. Providing tourists with the facility of buying mementoes at reasonable prices is no less important than any other facility.

Developing special interest tourism is another effective way of promoting tourism. This implies catering to those tourists who are interested in visiting only certain kinds of tourist spots —pilgrimage centres, historical sites and so on. These special categories of tourists are often not interested in venturing into anything other than what appeals to their specialized interests. If they are to be tapped, special interest tourism will have to be developed in a big way.

Kerala has proved to be a pioneer in this sector as well. It has developed a number of herbal treatment centres in natural environments, besides planning to introduce pilgrim tourism projects covering the whole of southern India in collaboration with the tourism departments of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Pondicherry.

Adventure tourism is another area that has been left largely unexplored in India. Tourists can be encouraged to go for adventurous nature sports like rafting, skiing, water-skiing and so on. Here, the insurance packages can be made more expensive and the covers more attractive. Business tourism could also be promoted by encouraging businessmen from other states and from abroad to visit places where special products of the state are manufactured and sold.

In spite of possessing immense tourism potentials, the Indian states are yet to make optimum use of their resources. It is for the Union government to take some steps so that the state governments follow suit. It is needless to say that only if a large number of states come forward to promote tourism can the tourists reap the economic benefits of scale. For instance, a foreign tourist comes with the intention of visiting more than one state. If several states offer attractive packages, he will be able to cover a wider area while spending a small amount. Therefore, a comprehensive action plan needs to be drawn up by the Union government. The initiatives taken by Kerala are always there to lead the way.


Disabled people formed only 12.89 per cent of the professional staff and 15.41 per cent of the non-professional staff in the respondent organizations. There has been a continuous debate about the need for a change in the attitudes of professional rehabilitators. The field of rehabilitation would definitely be enriched if more disabled people joined it. The disability movement does not reject the role of professionals. What it rejects is the complete inappropriateness of their seeking to represent the disabled people. Rehabilitation professionals need to change from the management of “patients” and “clients” to that of being a resource for disabled persons to use in reaching their own goals.

To bring more disabled people in rehabilitation, the disabled graduating from the various institutions should be encouraged to join professional rehabilitation courses. There is also a need to increase the salaries of rehabilitation professionals. Till this is done, rehabilitation will just be considered as a very “noble” work.

Nongovernmental organizations should network with employment exchanges for vacancies in their organizations. NGOs working in the area of one disability should also employ people with other kinds of disabilities. The data showed that amongst the disabled staff in the 119 participating organizations, persons with locomotor disability [were] maximum. The number of persons with other types of disabilities amongst staff members was almost insignificant.

It was interesting to note that although women formed 53.09 per cent of the professional workforce, their percentage dropped to a mere 28.45 per cent at the decisionmaking level...Women are made to believe that they are very effective in dealing with “clients” and should thus continue to do that. Women themselves also have the desire to help, nurture and care for people, but in the process, they underestimate their managerial and administrative capabilities. Though the women professionals formed over 50 per cent of the workforce in the participating organizations, the percentage of disabled women amongst professional staff was found to be as low as 4.47 per cent.

Non-professional or support staff formed nearly 47 per cent of the total staff strength of the participating NGOs, highlighting the extent of their contribution and role in rehabilitation services. Many NGOs did not give the data for professional and non-professional staff separately, probably because they do not “discriminate” between them; or consider the work of the non-professional staff as significant and good as that of professionals; or because some of the staff members may have undertaken rehabilitation courses that are not recognized by the Rehabilitation Council of India and are thus not considered “professionals”.

To be concluded



A few failures too costly

Sir — The word, “indispensable”, is not to be found in the cricket dictionary. It cannot be imported even for a cricketer called Steve Waugh, arguably the best test batsman of all times (“Steve dumped from ODI squad”, Feb 14). The Australian selectors have proved, as Richie Benaud has pointed out, that “the Australian nation would not tolerate even a small number of losses”. In the last triangular series against South Africa and New Zealand, Waugh’s scores in seven matches were 15, 62, 9, 22, 30, 7 and 42. Cricketers have retained their place in teams after poorer performances. In India in particular, players can reap the dividends of one high score for a long time. Waugh’s sacking surely does not follow from Australia’s failure to make it to the finals in the triangular series. If it did, it would have been enough to remove him from captaincy. In fact, the Australian team needs Waugh the captain more than Waugh the batsman, though there are few batsmen in the current team who can play the role of a sheet-anchor as unfailingly as Waugh did. The selectors should have considered Waugh’s role as a father figure before axing him.
Yours faithfully,
Sudhangshu Mohan Ganguly, Howrah

Fitting image

Sir — The report, “CM’s image does nothing for Bengal” (Feb 11), has stated the obvious. West Bengal has been suffering the consequences of its economic backwardness for some time now. There was a time when West Bengal-based companies like Hindustan Motors, Dunlop, Shaw Wallace, not to forget the jute mills, earned the state one of the top slots in the country’s industrial rankings. That these companies either did not survive or are ailing has much to do with the erosion of the work culture and militant trade unionism. Finding the atmosphere ill-conducive, the management of the companies too shied away from investing in the units or working towards their revival. The profits from these units have been invested in places where the comp-anies visualized a better future for themselves.

The state government has awakened too late. Intervention at the right time could have avoided this eventuality. There has been no dearth of awareness programmes, for instance, about literacy, diseases like polio, malaria and leprosy, but none to improve the work culture among the people.

One needs to ask why Maharashtra, in spite of being the hub of underworld activities, has managed to attract investors from all over the world while West Bengal has failed miserably on that front. To make matters worse, West Bengal has lost most of the industries it could take pride in. The most interesting coincidence in the report compiled by the World Bank and the Confederation of Indian Industry is that at the bottom of the list of investor-friendly Indian states, West Bengal is kept company by Kerala, the only other communist-ruled state.

Yours faithfully,
N.R. Venkateswaran, Calcutta

Sir — The report prepared by the World Bank and the CII on the investment climates in Indian states ironically came out just a few days after the chairman of the West Bengal industrial development corporation, Somnath Chatterjee, informed the press at the Writers Buildings about the optimistic picture projected by an international consulting firm.

The WBIDC and its chairman have done precious little to attract investment to the state. In fact, there were reports that Chatterjee wanted to quit as the WBIDC head immediately after Jyoti Basu retired. Was he scared that under the new chief minister, Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, the WBIDC’s failures will come to light? Details of the irregularities within the WBIDC have been highlighted in the media. These included the allegation that lakhs of rupees had been spent during the past five years to finance the many foreign trips undertaken by the chairman of the WBIDC. Following investment “carnivals” like the Intechmart West Bengal in 1999 and Destination West Bengal in 2001, some small and medium-sized companies have come forward to invest in the state. But the amount invested is nowhere near what was expected.

A recent survey has revealed that in terms of overall performance, industrial output and investment, West Bengal holds the 11th, 12th and 9th positions respectively among the states. What Gurcharan Das, former head of Procter & Gamble, said in Calcutta in November 2000 is more relevant now than ever before. “No investor in his good senses will ever dare to set up shop in West Bengal and those who have tried have burnt their fingers. You will have to be a lunatic to invest here”, he said. He added that he felt sorry for the mothers of Bengal, “as their children will have to migrate out of the state in search of better opportunities”. Most important, he said, “The exercise of portraying an investor-friendly image of West Bengal is like painting stripes on an elephant.”

The case of West Bengal is a lesson in how not to solicit investment for a state.

Yours faithfully.
Angshu Ray, Calcutta

Sir — Why would firms in a power-surplus state require generators for their supply of power? This has exploded the myth that the state government had tried to propagate for over two decades.

Yours faithfully,
Srimati Roychowdhury, Calcutta

Sir — West Bengal’s poor investment potential derives from several factors. The primary factor is Calcutta’s international image as a desperate leprosy-ridden place where you have to step over corpses to cross a street. Fifty years of relentless work by Mother Teresa and others has resulted in such a misconception. One hoped that the misconception would clear with time. Evidently, it has not. On February 11, the Daily Telegraph ran a huge feature on another white saviour of Calcutta. And Calcutta was yet again described as a squalid, diseased, pestilential hell-hole. While acknowledging the fact that many of these sahib social workers are well-meaning, it must be admitted that this constant negative focus on the city is taking away precious business and commerce, and is harming everyone associated with the city.

Yours faithfully,
Z. Kittler, London

Who’s talking?

Sir — Ashok Mitra has not minced words while condemning the mourning of Mark Mascarenhas’s death by Sachin Tendulkar (“Played by other rules”, Feb 15). But why did he feel it necessary to disguise the subjects of his criticism by leaving them anonymous? Shouldn’t he then also condemn, and equally strongly, the acts of Josef Stalin?
Yours faithfully,
Rabindra Singh, Calcutta

Sir — Ashok Mitra not only possesses insight, but also has the courage to criticize things that many would prefer to leave alone. It is indeed surprising and shocking that the most revered cricketer of the country should compel his teammates to abide by his diktat. In modern Indian society, as Mitra rightly points out, only money talks. We must prepare ourselves to expect the unexpected, and even the unthinkable.

Yours faithfully,
Subhajit Ghosh, Shillong

Sir — Ashok Mitra’s understanding of economics may be better than that of most others. But the same cannot be said of his understanding of human relationships. Mitra claims that “The national team was mourning the death of an agent with a questionable past.” What has one’s past, questionable or otherwise, got to do with his death being mourned by his friends and relatives? Will the mother of a convict now be forbidden to cry if her son dies?

To conclude that Sachin Tendulkar’s grief sprang from the loss of a benefactor who had made him rich is not only callous but also foolish. The Tendulkars of the world have no dearth of agents wanting to promote them. But few, like Mark Mascarenhas, manage to earn the friendship of their clients. Mitra would do well to confine his comments to economics.

Yours faithfully,
S.K. Sarkar, Calcutta

Good man

Sir — Ramachandra Guha’s tribute to Satish Dhawan, who passed away sometime ago, is timely (“The good scientist”, Jan 13). However, it needs to be said that Dhawan was not only a “good man”, but a great leader of men and a builder of institutions, as I learnt from my years as faculty at the Indian Institute of Science. Apart from the interdisciplinary centres mentioned by Guha, it was at Dhawan’s initiative that the Centre for Theoretical Studies and the Material Research Centre were created. For the former, he persuaded E.C.G. Sudarshan to return to India from Texas. Like Homi Bhabha, he realized that it was not just funds but the human element that enabled a school or a department to grow and flourish.

In the late Sixties and the early Seventies, he went on recruiting missions to the United States of America and the United Kingdom and infused fresh blood into a traditional structure. To circumvent problems between the old departments and new research centres, he created a flexible organization. The IISc was among the first to introduce the grade point average system and student evaluation of courses. It was not said without reason that what IISc did today, other institutions did tomorrow. That Bangalore has become synonymous with high-tech education is mainly because of the foundation laid during Dhawan’s 20-year long stewardship.

A relatively unknown achievement of Dhawan was a delightful illustrated book, On Flight, which began with the flight of birds and took the subject all the way to space travel. Men like Dhawan are truly rare.

Yours faithfully,
D.N. Bose, Calcutta

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